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那些年矿机厂商夸下的海口,都被官方一一打脸(前篇)

此次发布常见问题解答,主要是希望帮助对Filecoin感兴趣的朋友进一步理解:1)Filecoin协议的价值主张,以及它旨在解决的问题;2)某些协议设计决策;3)如何参与Filecoin网络。

以下翻译参考公众号“FileCoinAsia”

Filecoin问题解答 – 你关注的投资、挖矿都在这 》

Filecoin FAQs

Filecoin常见问题

那些年矿机厂商夸下的海口,都被官方一一打脸(前篇)

LEGAL DISCLAIMER: The following questions and answers are provided for general informational purposes only, and may contain forward looking statements subject to risks and uncertainties. The actual properties and behavior of the protocol may differ materially from the information provided here. Statements in this document are not investment or legal advice.

法律免责声明:以下问题和答案仅供一般参考之用,可能包含有风险和不确定性的前瞻性陈述。协议的真实情况可能与此处提供的信息存在一定差异。本文中的陈述不构成投资或法律建议。

介绍(Introduction)

These FAQs include questions and answers to help those interested in the Filecoin network further understand: 1) the Filecoin protocol’s value proposition, and the problems it aims to solve, 2) certain protocol design decisions, and 3) how to participate in the Filecoin network.

If you’re new to the Filecoin network, we suggest skimming the Filecoin whitepaper and the Filecoin primer before reading these FAQs.

此次发布常见问题解答,主要是希望帮助对Filecoin感兴趣的朋友进一步理解:1)Filecoin协议的价值主张,以及它旨在解决的问题;2)某些协议设计决策;3)如何参与Filecoin网络。

如果是初次接触Filecoin,建议在阅读这些常见问题解答之前,可以先看看Filecoin白皮书Filecoin入门相关文章。(Filecoin入门有文章链接,可点击查看)

内容目录(Table of Contents)(略)

Filecoin 101

What is Filecoin?

什么是Filecoin?

Filecoin is a decentralized storage network that turns cloud storage into an algorithmic market. Miners earn the native protocol token (also called “filecoin”) by providing data storage and/or retrieval. Conversely, clients pay miners to store or distribute data and to retrieve it. “Filecoin” can refer to a) the network, b) the protocol, c) the token powering the network, and d) the project. For more details, please see the Glossary below and https://filecoin.io/.

Filecoin是一个分布式的存储网络,可将云存储转变为算法市场。矿工通过提供数据存储或检索来获得协议令牌(也称为“filecoin”)。相反,客户向矿工支付费用以存储或分发数据并进行检索。“Filecoin”可以指: a.网络;b.协议;c.为网络提供动力的令牌;以及 d.项目。

What is the connection between IPFS and Filecoin?

IPFS和Filecoin之间有什么联系?

Filecoin and IPFS are complementary protocols, both created by Protocol Labs. IPFS allows peers to store, request, and transfer verifiable data with each other. IPFS is open-source and free to download and use, and is already in use by numerous groups. With IPFS, individual nodes store data that they consider important; there’s no simple way to incentivize others to join the network or store specific data.

Filecoin和IPFS是互补协议,均由协议实验室创建。 IPFS允许对等体相互存储、请求和传输可验证的数据。IPFS是开源的,可以免费下载和使用,目前已经被许多组织使用。使用IPFS,各个节点存储他们认为重要的数据,没有简单的方法可以激励其他节点加入网络存储特定数据。

Filecoin is designed to solve this key problem by providing a system of persistent data storage. Under Filecoin’s incentive structure, clients pay to store data at specific levels of redundancy and availability, and miners earn payments and rewards by continuously storing data and cryptographically proving it.

Filecoin旨在通过提供持久数据存储系统来解决这一关键问题。在Filecoin的激励结构下,客户支付费用来在特定的冗余和可用性级别上存储数据。矿工通过持续存储数据,并以加密方式证明数据来获得报酬和奖励。 

In short: IPFS addresses and moves content; Filecoin is the missing incentive layer.

简而言之:IPFS是地址和移动内容; Filecoin是缺少的激励层。

Filecoin also employs many components of IPFS. For example:

Filecoin还使用了IPFS的许多组件。例如:

Filecoin uses IPLD for blockchain data structures

Filecoin将IPLD用于区块链数据结构

Filecoin nodes use libp2p to establish secure connections to each other

Filecoin节点使用libp2p建立彼此的安全连接

Messaging between nodes and Filecoin block propogation utilizes libp2p pubsub

利用libp2p pubsub实现节点间的消息传递和Filecoin块扩展

Moreover, the Filecoin core team includes some members of the IPFS core team. Compatibility is intended to be as seamless as possible between IPFS and Filecoin. Even after Filecoin launches, we expect the IPFS and Filecoin open-source communities to continue to collaborate and improve compatibility.

此外,Filecoin核心团队包括IPFS核心团队的一些成员。兼容性旨在,在IPFS和Filecoin之间尽可能的无缝。即使在Filecoin启动之后,我们仍然期望IPFS和Filecoin开源社区继续协作并提高兼容性。

When should I choose to use Filecoin and when should I choose IPFS?

我们应该在何时选择使用Filecoin?何时选择IPFS?

First, it’s worth repeating that Filecoin and IPFS are intended to complement each other and have significant cross compatibility. We are working to make it easy to migrate between voluntary IPFS storage and paid Filecoin storage.

首先,值得重复的是,Filecoin和IPFS旨在相互补充,并具有显着的交叉兼容性。我们正努力使其易于自愿在IPFS存储和付费Filecoin存储之间迁移。

With IPFS, you are responsible for your own storage nodes by directly provisioning hardware or purchasing storage from a third party. On IPFS, individual nodes store content that they consider important; there’s no simple way to incentivize others to guarantee to store your data on their systems. Filecoin provides the missing incentive structure.

使用IPFS,可以通过直接配置硬件或从第三方购买存储,来为自己的存储节点负责。在IPFS各个节点上,存储他们认为重要的内容。没有简单的方法来激励他人,保证将数据存储在他们的系统上。而Filecoin提供缺少的激励结构。

If you prefer to maintain your own storage nodes, or have external arrangements to store data cooperatively with peers, IPFS may be your preferred option. If you prefer to pay competitive prices and have storage managed for you at specific levels of redundancy and availability, Filecoin may be your preferred option.

如果您希望维护自己的存储节点,或者有外部安排来与对等方协作存储数据,则IPFS可能是您的首选方案。如果您希望支付具有竞争力的价格,并在特定级别的冗余和可用性下为您管理存储,则Filecoin可能是您的首选方案。

Why use decentralized storage on Filecoin with IPFS instead of existing data storage solutions?

为什么在Filecoin上使用IPFS分布式存储代替现有的数据存储解决方案?

When you type a URL into your web browser to access information on the internet today, the URL resolves to an IP address that identifies one server storing the information you are looking for. Nearly every publisher, vendor, and service on the internet stores information on servers located in specific data centers under their control, which makes the internet as we know it today “centralized”.

当你在Web浏览器中键入URL以访问Internet上的信息时,URL将解析为一个IP地址,该IP地址标识一个存储你要查找信息的服务器。互联网上几乎每个发布者、供应商和服务商都将信息存储在,位于其控制下的特定数据中心的服务器上,这使得我们今天所知的互联网非常的“集中化”。

Filecoin is a decentralized storage system that uses cryptographic hashes to identify and distribute data stored on the network. The network protocol itself works to ensure your files are stored. Novel cryptographic proofs create a useful and valuable storage service for clients as a byproduct of the Filecoin mining process. The miners are incentivized to monetize open hard drive space on Filecoin’s verifiable marketplace for storage, and they are awarded proportionally: the more they store, the more filecoin tokens they earn.

Filecoin是一个分布式的存储系统,它使用加密哈希来识别和分发存储在网络上的数据。网络协议本身的作用是确保你的文件存储。作为Filecoin挖掘过程的副产品,新的加密证明为客户创建了有用且有价值的存储服务。矿工们被激励在Filecoin可验证的存储市场上将硬盘空间货币化,并且按比例获得奖励。他们存储的越多,他们获得的Filecoin Token就越多。 

We believe this additional supply of verifiable, decentralized storage will both reduce costs and improve performance for clients. As a decentralized protocol, the data stored in the network and access to it cannot be controlled or exploited by a central entity, which improves robustness. At scale, information distributed across Filecoin miners will be stored nearer to users than is currently possible with monolithic centralized servers and large content distribution networks, making information retrieval much faster. Indexed data via cryptographic hashes on Filecoin enables users to efficiently orchestrate and update massive datasets. Lastly, as an open-source project, the software itself can be examined, verified, and improved publicly, unlike most cloud storage and distribution platforms today. As Filecoin evolves and new capabilities are added, we hope the network can provide a platform for most, if not all, information storage and delivery needs across the internet.

我们相信,这种额外的可验证的、分布式存储供应将降低成本,并提高客户的性能。作为分布式的协议,存储在网络中的数据和对其的访问不能被中央实体控制或利用,这提高了鲁棒性。从规模上看,分布在Filecoin矿工中的信息,将比使用单片集中式服务器和大型内容分发网络的用户,更靠近用户存储,从而使得信息检索更快。通过Filecoin上的加密哈希索引数据,使用户能够有效地编排和更新大量数据集。最后,作为一个开源项目,可以对软件本身进行公开检查、验证和改进,这与当今大多数云存储和分发平台不同。随着Filecoin的发展和新功能的增加,我们希望网络能够提供一个平台,满足大多数跨互联网的信息存储和交付需求。

Mining

挖矿

2.1 准备挖矿(Setting up to mine)

How do I become a storage and/or a retrieval miner?

如何成为存储或检索矿工?

In short, you will be able to run Filecoin mining node software in a way that is similar to networks like Bitcoin and Ethereum. We will continue to share more information and issue guidance as development progresses. Please be sure to join the miner mailing list to receive future updates.

简而言之,你将能够以类似于比特币和以太网等网络的方式运行Filecoin挖掘节点软件。随着开发进展的推进,我们将继续分享更多信息并发布指导意见。请务必加入矿工邮件列表以接收未来的更新。

What are the hardware requirements for mining Filecoin?

Filecoin挖矿有哪些硬件要求?

We have not yet released exact hardware specifications for Filecoin mining.

我们尚未发布Filecoin挖矿的确切硬件规范。

Storage miners earn filecoin by storing data for clients, and computing cryptographic proofs to verify storage across time. The probability of earning the block reward and transaction fees is proportional to the amount of storage the miner contributes to the Filecoin network, and not hashing power.

存储矿工通过为客户存储数据来获得Filecoin,并计算加密证明以随时间验证存储。获得区块奖励和交易费用的概率,与矿工对Filecoin网络的存储量成比例,而不是强大的哈希计算能力。

Retrieval miners earn filecoin by winning bids and mining fees for a particular file that are determined by the market value of that file. A retrieval miner’s bandwidth and bid/initial response time for deals (i.e., latency and proximity to clients) will determine its ability to close retrieval deals on the network. The maximum bandwidth of a retrieval miner will set the total quantity of deals it can make.

检索矿工通过赢得特定文件的出价和采矿费用来获得Filecoin,这些费用由该文件的市场价值决定。检索矿工的带宽和交易的出价/初始响应时间(即延迟和与客户的接近度),将决定其在网络上关闭检索交易的能力。检索矿工的最大带宽将决定它所能完成的交易量。

Therefore, mining hardware should include ample storage space for storage mining, and/or a fast internet connection for retrieval mining. We expect that mining hardware will contain configurations with many hard drives, likely similar to a network-attached storage (NAS) device. Exact specifications for CPU and RAM have not yet been published. We also note that early storage and retrieval miners will be required to run full nodes of the Filecoin network.

因此,挖掘硬件应该包括用于存储挖掘的充足存储空间,和用于检索挖掘的快速网络连接。我们预计挖矿硬件将包含具有许多硬盘驱动器的配置,可能类似于网络连接存储(NAS)设备。CPU和RAM的确切规格尚未公布。我们还注意到,早期存储和检索矿工将需要运行Filecoin网络的完整节点。

Will I need an ASIC to mine Filecoin?

需不需要ASIC来开采Filecoin?

We’re doing our best to design the protocol so that “specialized Filecoin mining hardware” is most likely a highly optimized hard drive. Because Filecoin’s consensus mechanism is based on Proof-of-Replication and Proof-of-Spacetime, there is no hash-intensive Proof-of-Work. While the Filecoin proofs do require frequent storage lookups that could be facilitated by hardware, it would be expensive and likely impractical to design ASICs that support such random access to large amounts of memory. Realistically, we expect commodity hard-drives to generate and verify proofs at competitive speeds.

我们正在尽最大努力设计协议,以便“专用的Filecoin挖掘硬件”很可能是高度优化的硬盘驱动器。由于Filecoin的共识机制是基于复制验证和时空验证的,所以没有哈希密集的工作验证。虽然Filecoin证明确实需要频繁的存储查找,而这些查找可以通过硬件来促进,但是设计支持对大量内存随机访问的ASIC是昂贵的,并且可能是不切实际的。实际上,我们希望商品硬盘能够以极具竞争力的速度产生和验证。

2.2 运行节点(Running your node)

What kind of data is stored on a storage node?

存储节点上存储什么样的数据?

The Filecoin whitepaper states that storage miners will store two types of data: (1) sealed copies of the data they have agreed to store and (2) blockchain data. We expect miners will act as full nodes to better support the protocol, storing and verifying the complete blockchain. Since stored files will not be included in the blockchain itself, total storage required for storing the entire blockchain will be much lower than the sealed data that miners will store for deals.

Filecoin白皮书指出,存储矿工将存储两种类型的数据:

(1)他们同意存储的数据密封副本

(2)blockchain数据副本。

我们希望矿工充当完整节点,以更好地支持协议,存储和验证完整的区块链。由于存储的文件不会包含在区块链中,因此存储整个区块链所需的总存储量,将比矿工为交易而存储的密封数据低得多。

Can retrieval miners store data without being storage miners (for instance, store some popular data to serve to others)?

检索矿工是否可以存储数据(例如,存储一些供其他人使用的热门数据)?

Yes, retrieval miners can store data without being storage miners. However, storing data does not make a retrieval miner a storage miner. All storage miners are required to engage in the Filecoin Mining Protocol. That means: pledge storage, commit collateral, and prove storage continuously through Proofs-of-Spacetime.

是的,检索矿工可以存储数据,而无需存储矿工。但是,存储数据不会使检索矿工成为存储矿工。所有储存矿工都必须参与Filecoin 挖掘协议。这意味着:承诺存储,提交抵押品,并通过时空证明持续证明存储。

How do retrieval miners acquire the data to send to clients?

检索矿工如何获取要发送给客户的数据?

We anticipate retrieval miners will also be storage miners (in which case they get the data directly from the client) or will retrieve a file from other storage miners if they realize the file is in high demand. The retrieval miner is not restricted to obtaining the data through Filecoin. It is possible that the data was temporarily available on IPFS or a server for free.

我们预计检索矿工也将成为存储矿工(在这种情况下,他们直接从客户端获取数据),或者如果他们意识到文件需求很大,他们将从其他存储矿工中检索文件。检索矿机不限于通过Filecoin获取数据。数据可能是免费在IPFS或服务器上临时提供的。

How can a blockchain-based protocol handle fast retrieval of files?

基于区块链的协议如何处理文件的快速检索?

While the storage market takes place on-chain, the retrieval market will operate entirely off-chain. We also expect that retrieval miners serving popular data will be globally distributed and efficient. You can watch the Filecoin Storage Market Basics video for more information.

虽然存储市场是在链上进行的,但检索市场将完全脱链运营。我们还希望为流行数据提供服务的检索矿工将在全球范围内分布,并且是高效的。

2.3 收益与奖励(Rewards and profitability)

How do I earn Filecoin as a miner?

作为矿工,该如何赚取Filecoin? 

Individual miners can participate in both the storage and retrieval markets to earn filecoin.

个体矿工可以参与存储和检索市场以获得filecoin。

In the storage market, miners are paid filecoin over time as they continue to prove they are storing a particular file. In addition, storage market miners have some likelihood of winning the next block, and earning the block reward and fees from transactions included in the block (similar to block rewards in other cryptocurrencies).

在存储市场中,矿工随着时间的推移会收到filecoin,因为他们继续证明他们正在存储特定文件。此外,存储市场矿工有可能赢得下一个区块,并从区块中包含的交易中获得区块奖励和费用(类似于其他加密货币的区块奖励)。

In the retrieval market, miners are paid in filecoin via off-chain payment channels for quickly providing files to clients who request them.

在检索市场中,矿工通过离线支付渠道在filecoin库中得到报酬,以便快速向请求它们的客户提供文件。

Clients

用户

3.1 使用成本(Usage and costs)

Why do I have to use Filecoin to pay for data storage and retrieval? Why not another cryptocurrency, like bitcoin, or a fiat currency, like USD?

为什么必须使用Filecoin来支付数据存储和检索费用?而不是像BTC一样的Token,或者像美元一样的法定货币?

Filecoin uses a native currency to engineer an incentive structure for the participation of storage and retrieval miners, or the supply side, of our network. Filecoin was designed with the goal of ensuring that the most profitable choice of every participant (including clients, miners, investors, and developers) is to act to improve the quality of service for the network.

Filecoin使用本身Token设计一个激励结构,以鼓励存储、检索矿工及供应方参与我们的网络。Filecoin的设计目标是确保每个参与者(包括客户、矿工、投资者和开发人员)最有利可图的选择,是采取行动来提高网络的服务质量。

Filecoin is built around a novel blockchain consensus protocol based on Proof-of-Storage. Clients who want to store files on the Filecoin network hire miners to store multiple copies of their files across the network. Each miner must submit publicly verifiable cryptographic proofs that they are continuing to store the data in order to receive payment and block rewards in filecoin. Payment and rewards in filecoin power the incentive structure to guarantee a fair, permissionless, robust, and decentralized storage network.

Filecoin是围绕基于存储证明的新型区块链共识协议构建的。想要在Filecoin网络上存储文件的客户,雇佣矿工在网络上存储他们文件的多个副本。每个矿工必须提交可公开验证的加密证明,证明他们正在继续存储数据,以便在filecoin中接收付款和阻止奖励。filecoin中的支付和奖励为激励结构提供动力,以保证一个公平、无权限、强大分布式的存储网络。 

Will there be any charges to users for retrieving the data?

是否会向用户收取任何检索数据的费用?

In some cases yes, and in some cases no. Someone needs to pay for the bandwidth costs incurred by miners serving the data to whoever is retrieving it. The simplest structure is for whoever is retrieving the data to pay for the costs of their own request.

在某些情况下有,在某些情况下没有。有人需要支付矿工服务数据的带宽成本,无论谁正在检索它。最简单的结构是,为了检索数据的人来支付他们自己的请求的费用。

Of course, that simple structure is not enough to satisfy the wide variety of data storage and distribution arrangements in the internet today. It is anticipated that Filecoin will offer constructions that allow one party to pay for another party to retrieve data (for example, via the use of vouchers or tickets). That will make many other kinds of models work, including the main content distribution model of web 2.0 websites. In that model, website owners pay for infrastructure services to serve data to their users for free, and then monetize the content in some other way. We aim for Filecoin to support structures like these. But we also aim to enable users and content creators to explore all kinds of new content distribution and economic models.

当然,这种简单的结构不足以满足当今互联网中各种各样的数据存储和分发安排。预计Filecoin将提供允许一方为另一方支付来检索数据的结构(例如,通过使用凭证或票据)。这将使许多其他类型的模型工作,包括web 2.0网站的主要内容分发模型。在该模型中,网站所有者为基础设施服务付费,以免费向其用户提供数据,然后以其他方式通过内容获利。我们的目标是使用Filecoin来支持这样的结构。但我们的目标也是让用户和内容创作者,能够探索各种新的内容分发经济模型。

IPFS is and will remain free to download, run, and use, and will run independently from Filecoin. Once Filecoin launches, IPFS nodes may also offer retrieval of their files on the Filecoin retrieval market at no cost or for a profit.

IPFS现在和将来都可以免费下载、运行和使用,并且将独立于Filecoin运行。一旦Filecoin启动,IPFS节点还可以在Filecoin检索市场上免费或收费的提供其文件的检索。

In addition, we believe that data sets with significant scientific or cultural value that are currently hosted on IPFS may have their Filecoin costs sponsored by nonprofits and governments.

此外,我们认为目前在IPFS上托管的具有重大科学或文化价值的数据集,可能会由非营利组织和政府赞助其Filecoin成本。

3.2 使用保障(Usage and guarantees)

I might like to store data on Filecoin. How do I stay informed?

我可能想在Filecoin上存储数据,如何保持知情?

The Filecoin network is not yet live, but you can sign up for our early user program and follow the Filecoin blog for updates.

Filecoin网络尚未上线,但你可以注册我们的早期用户体验表并关注Filecoin博客以获取更新。

How do you prevent information loss on Filecoin’s decentralized storage network?

如何防止Filecoin分布式存储网络上的信息丢失?

Filecoin is designed for highly redundant, highly available, and highly geo-replicated storage. Nobody can cover against all data loss scenarios, but we can drastically increase the probability of success by encouraging high replication, repairing damage proactively, and making it expensive for miners to fail.

Filecoin专为高度冗余,高可用性和高度地理复制的存储而设计。没有人能够应对所有数据丢失情况,但我们可以通过鼓励高度复制、主动修复损坏以及使矿工失败成本高昂来大幅提高成功的概率。

Filecoin stores data redundantly across multiple storage miners. If one of those miners loses the file, they then lose their committed collateral (as a fee for failing to honor the deal), and a new miner will be automatically hired to store another replica of the file. In this way, the Filecoin network is expected to be self-healing, and repair damage over time. This is similar in some ways to how professional cloud storage providers work today, but with an added repair that works across multiple storage providers.

Filecoin将数据冗余存储在多个存储矿工中。如果其中一个矿工丢失了文件,他们就会失去提交的抵押品(作为未能履行交易的费用),并且将自动雇用一名新矿工来存储该文件的另一个副本。通过这种方式,Filecoin网络有望自我修复,并随着时间的推移修复损坏。这在某些方面,这与当今专业云存储供应商的工作方式类似,但是可以在多个存储供应商之间进行额外的修复。

On the Filecoin network, clients can adjust the number of times their data is replicated, also known as the replication factor (or erasure coding), to achieve higher levels of redundancy and safety, though at a higher cost. Replication defaults will be carefully chosen to optimize safe storage and reduce the risk of data loss. Clients can adjust these defaults to achieve even higher (or lower) levels of redundancy and safety, at different costs.

在Filecoin网络上,客户端可以调整其数据复制的次数,也称为复制因子(或擦除编码),以实现更高级别的冗余和安全性,但成本更高。将仔细选择复制默认值以优化安全存储并降低数据丢失的风险。客户可以调整这些默认值,以不同的成本实现更高(或更低)的冗余和安全级别。

In addition, we expect reputation systems to emerge. We expect that client nodes will then be able to run software that learns the past history of storage miners and aims to hire more reliable miners.

此外,我们预计会呈现声誉系统。我们希望客户端节点能够运行了解存储矿工过去历史的软件,并且旨在雇用更可靠的矿工。

What happens if a miner storing my data loses internet connectivity?

如果存储我数据的矿工失去网络连接会怎样?

It’s difficult for a protocol to distinguish a miner who has lost connectivity from a miner who has maliciously deleted the data they’ve promised to store. As a result, miners are required to lock up collateral, which they lose if they fail to prove that they’re storing the files. If a single miner is offline for a short period of time, and continues to generate proofs, they will be subject to little or no penalization. Eventually, if the miner is offline for too long, the miner is declared to have failed. The miner loses its collateral, and the network triggers the repair process, hiring a new miner to store the data.

协议很难区分丢失连接的矿工和恶意删除承诺存储的数据的矿工。因此,矿工需要锁定抵押品,如果未能证明他们存储文件,他们将失去抵押品。如果一个矿工在短时间内离线,并继续生成证据,他们将受到很少的或没有惩罚。最终,如果矿工离线太长时间,则声明矿工已失败。矿工失去其抵押品,网络触发修复过程,将雇用一名新矿工来存储数据。

How will users retrieve their files by name? Won’t people upload different files with the same name?

用户如何按名称检索文件?会不会存在上传具有相同名称的不同文件?

Like IPFS, Filecoin uses content addressing. We use cryptographic hash functions to generate concise content identifiers (CIDs). This acts as a unique identifier or “fingerprint” for each file, regardless of name.

与IPFS一样,Filecoin使用内容寻址。我们使用加密哈希函数来生成简明的内容标识符(CID)。无论名称如何,这对于每个文件都是唯一的标识符或“指纹”。

What about hash collisions? Isn’t it possible that two files can get the same hash value?

哈希冲突怎么办?两个不同文件会不会获得相同的哈希值?

We believe the probability of encountering a collision with modern, secure, collision resistant cryptographic hash functions is astronomically low. Further, the likelihood of finding a second file that hashes to a specific value (second preimage attack) is even more unlikely. Cryptosystems around the world rely on these values being secure, and thus we believe it is safe to do so in Filecoin.

我们认为,与现代、安全、抗冲突的加密散列函数发生碰撞的概率非常低。此外,找到哈希到特定值(第二原像攻击)的第二文件的可能性甚至基本不存在。世界各地的密码系统依赖于这些安全的价值,因此我们相信在Filecoin中这样做是安全的。 

That said, secure hash functions have broken in the past. The collisions we have found in secure hash functions have generally been due to the hash function breaking under cryptanalysis (such as md5 and sha1). This is always a possibility, and most other cryptosystems – such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, DNSSEC, Certificate Authorities, HTTPS, and more – are equally vulnerable. Nevertheless, we have planned for this unlikely event! Our content identifiers (CIDs) use the Multihash format, allowing safe upgrades to a new hash function.

也就是说,安全哈希函数在过去已经被打破。我们在安全哈希函数中发现的冲突,通常是由于加密分析(例如md5和sha1)下哈希函数被破坏。这始终是一种可能性,大多数其他加密系统 – 如比特币、以太坊、DNSSEC、Certificate Authorities、HTTPS等 – 同样容易受到攻击。尽管如此,我们还是计划了这个不可能发生的事件!我们的内容标识符(CID)使用多哈希格式,允许对新的哈希函数进行安全升级。

Okay, but am I supposed to remember those CIDs or hashes?

是否需要记住那些CID或哈希?

If you want to remember that QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco gets you a Wikipedia mirror, you have our respect. But users should not be expected to remember content identifiers (CIDs) in this format. Over time, we and other developers building on Filecoin plan to make it easy for users to seamlessly and conveniently find files using human-readable naming systems.

如果你能够记住,QmXoypizjW3WknFiJnKLwHCnL72vedxjQkDDP1mXWo6uco为你提供的维基百科镜像,你会得到我们的尊重。但用户不应该期望以此种格式记住内容标识符(CID)。随着时间的推移,我们和基于Filecoin的其他开发人员计划使用,人类可读的命名系统让用户轻松方便地查找文件。

Filecoin 201

For those who want to dig deeper…

下面的内容是写给希望深入了解的人

Why is Filecoin decentralized?

为什么Filecoin能够实现分布式?

The Filecoin network is decentralized because, anybody, without requiring permission from any central party, can:

Filecoin网络是分布式的,因为任何人都无需任何中央方的许可,都可以:

Participate by providing data storage or retrieval

通过提供数据存储或检索来参与

Use the network to store and retrieve data

使用网络存储和检索数据

Audit and verify the codebase

审核并验证代码库

Improve the protocol by proposing and implementing improvements

通过提出和实施改进来改进协议

Build applications, features, or functionality on top of the network without asking for permission

无需获得许可即可在网络上构建应用程序、特性或功能

Voice dissent and propose other options or directions for the network

提出异议,并提出其他选项或方向的网络

Fork the codebase

代码库分叉

Fork the blockchain

区块链分叉

Hold or transact with the filecoin token

使用filecoin进行交易

Filecoin will be an open-source protocol to which anyone can contribute or choose to run; moreover, the protocol, not a particular company, will mediate interactions between the participants. Filecoin will rely on support from its communities of developers, storage providers, and storage users building and using the protocol, rather than on the efforts of any particular company.

Filecoin将是一个开源协议,任何人都可以贡献或参与运行。此外,该协议不是特定的公司,将调解参与者之间的互动。Filecoin将依赖其开发人员、存储提供商和存储用户社区的支持来构建使用协议,而不是依赖于任何特定公司的努力。

Clients who want to store files on this network hire miners to store multiple copies of their files across the network. Each of these miners must submit proofs that they are continuing to store the correct number of copies of the data in order to receive payment and rewards. The publicly verifiable proofs allow the Filecoin protocol to permissionlesslyadmit any aspiring participant (without verification or centralized approval) and still provide a system for guarantees based on the engineered incentives: Filecoin was designed with the goal that the most profitable choice of every participant (including clients, miners, investors, and developers) is to act to improve the quality of service for the network.

希望在此网络上存储文件的客户,雇佣矿工在网络上存储其文件的多个副本。这些矿工中的每一个都必须提交证据,证明他们将继续存储正确数量的数据副本,以便接收报酬和奖励。该公开验证的证明,允许Filecoin协议无需许可地承认任何有抱负的参与者(无验证或集中批准),还提供了一个基于系统激励保障制度。Filecoin在设计时,每一个参与者最赚钱的选择(包括目标客户、矿工、投资者和开发人员)是提高网络服务质量。

What’s the difference between all these “proofs”?

所有这些“证明”之间有什么区别?

Most blockchains use a Proof-of-Work consensus protocol to incentivize mining and provide network security. These proofs are generally energy intensive as they require computers running nodes to calculate many computations of a hash function in order to verify the transactions on the network. While some novel projects are working toward a Proof-of-Stake consensus mechanism, the Filecoin protocol will use Proof-of-Replication (PoRep) and Proof-of-Spacetime (PoSt) to demonstrate that files have been allocated their own unique space in storage memory and are being stored over time. A Proof-of-Replication is a type of Proof-of-Storage with specific properties, which are outlined in detail in our Technical Report on Proofs-of-Replication.

大多数区块链使用工作量证明,以激励挖矿并提供网络安全。这些证明通常是能量密集型的,因为它们需要运行节点的计算机来计算,哈希函数的许多计算以便验证网络上的事务。虽然一些新颖的项目正在努力实现权益证明共识机制,但Filecoin协议将使用复制证明(PoRep)和时空证明(PoSt)来证明文件已经在存储内存中,分配了自己的独立的空间,并且随着时间推移而存储。复制证明是一种具有特定属性的存储证明类型,在我们的复制证明技术报告中有详细说明。

Why use Proof-of-Replication?

为什么要使用复制证明?

Proof-of-Replication was developed to solve the specific problems of a verifiable, decentralized storage network that could incentivize and reward file storage. One of the biggest draws for developing a blockchain consensus algorithm based on Proof-of-Replication was, in fact, our dismay for the wasted energy from hash-based Proof-of-Work schemes.Proof-of-Replication not only requires much less energy than Proof-of-Work, but the work required is a demonstration that miners are contributing a valuable resource to the network, namely additional storage capacity. Furthermore, the block reward serves to incentivize miners to contribute as much storage as possible, driving down the price of storage on the Filecoin network.

复制证明是为了解决可验证的、分布式存储网络的特定问题而开发的,该网络可以激励和奖励文件存储。事实上,我们对基于哈希的工作证明方案浪费的精力感到沮丧。开发基于复制证明块链一致性算法的最大优点之一是,复制证明不仅需要比工作证明少得多的精力,而且所需的工作表明矿工正在为网络贡献有价值的资源,即额外的存储容量。此外,块奖励用于激励矿工贡献尽可能多的存储空间,从而降低Filecoin网络上的存储价格。

Will networks prefer Proof-of-Storage currencies over those that use Proof-of-Work consensus?

网络是否更倾向于使用存储证明货币证明而不是工作量证明?

We find the power consumption of wasteful proofs-of-work incredibly alarming. Given the quality and number of proposals for useful Proof-of-Work and Proof-of-Stake consensus protocols under development, we think that wasteful proofs-of-work should and will slowly wane as various networks adapt, or rise and fall. We hope and expect the Filecoin network to grow and adapt in a sustainable manner. We aim for the energy expenditure of the Filecoin network to be a negligible fraction of the energy spent maintaining Bitcoin, while providing the same level of security, and the utility of file storage as a side effect. We also hope to establish an optimization structure that may one day yield more power-efficient cloud storage networks. To that end, we’re looking into estimating the environmental impact of all aspects of Filecoin.

我们发现浪费的工作证明功耗令人难以置信。考虑到正在开发的,有用的工作证明和风险证明协商一致协议的质量和数量 ,我们认为,随着各种网络的适应或起伏,浪费的工作证明应该会慢慢地消失。我们希望并期望Filecoin网络能够以可持续的方式成长和适应。我们的目标是使Filecoin网络的能量消耗,是维持比特币所花费的能量的一小部分,同时提供相同的安全性。我们还希望建立一种优化结构,有朝一日可以产生更节能的云存储网络。为此,我们正在研究估算Filecoin各方面的对环境的影响。

Why did Filecoin choose to use Proof-of-Storage, rather than Proof-of-Stake?

为什么Filecoin选择使用存储证明,而不是使用权益证明?

Filecoin uses a Proof-of-Storage consensus protocol because it is simple, aligns incentives, and drives miners to provide real, new storage at competitive prices. In developing a new type of Proof-of-Storage that we call Proof-of-Replication, we will enable miners’ storage devices to contain useful data, making them a valuable resource for the network. Proof-of-Stake is an interesting area of research that we closely follow.

Filecoin使用Proof-of-Storage共识协议,因为它很简单,可以调整激励并驱使矿工以有竞争力的价格提供真实的新存储。在开发我们称之为复制证明的新型存储证明时,我们将使矿工的存储设备包含有用的数据,使其成为网络的宝贵资源。 利益证明是我们密切关注的一个有趣的研究领域。

Investors

投资者

How do I access or view my SAFTs?

如何访问或查看我的SAFT(即爱西欧的币)?

To download your final SAFTs, please follow the guide we have published on our website. If you have questions or run into any issues, please email sale@filecoin.io.

要下载最终的SAFT,可以按照我们之前发布的指南进行操作。如果有任何疑问或遇到任何问题,可以发送电子邮件至sale@filecoin.io。 

How will I receive my tokens?

怎样才能收到我的Token?

We intend for Filecoin tokens to be distributed when the main network is launched (please see the development roadmap for the latest estimated timeframe). Shortly before then, we’ll send instructions to the email address associated with your CoinList account.

我们打算在主网启动时分发Filecoin Tokens(可以参照最新发布的开发路线图)。在此之前,我们会将发送信息到与你CoinList帐户关联的电子邮件地址。

Will Filecoin issue K-1s for my SAFTs?

Filecoin会为我的SAFT发行K-1吗?

No K-1s will be issued for investments in Filecoin SAFTs. To review your final Filecoin SAFTs, follow the steps in this guide we have published on our website. Unfortunately we’re unable to give tax advice, so we suggest consulting with your tax advisor.

对Filecoin SAFT的投资不会发行K-1。要查看最终的Filecoin SAFT,可以按照我们在网站上发布的本指南中的步骤进行操作。我们无法提供税务建议,因此我们建议你咨询税务顾问。

When does the token vesting period start?

Token何时开始发放?

The filecoin token vesting period begins at main network launch. Shortly before then, we’ll send instructions to the email address associated with your CoinList account. Please see development roadmap for the latest estimated timeframe.

filecoin令牌归属期从主网启动开始。在此之前,我们会将相关信息发送到与你的CoinList帐户关联的电子邮件地址。请参阅最新预计时间表的发展路线图。

Can I purchase Filecoin right now?

现在可不可以购买Filecoin?

The Filecoin token sale was closed in September 2017, and we’re not able to complete any new investments at this time. Fortunately we expect there will be more opportunities to participate in Filecoin upon main network launch. At that point, Filecoin tokens will be able to be mined through making storage and retrieval available on the network, and likely available on certain exchanges to be bought and sold.

Filecoin销售已于2017年9月关闭,目前无法完成任何新投资。幸运的是,我们预计在主网发布时将有更多机会参与Filecoin。此时,Filecoin令牌将能够通过在网络上提供存储和检索来开采,并且可能在某些交易所用于买卖。

I’ve seen some sites claiming to trade Filecoin. Are those real?

一些网站声称的Filecoin交易是不是真的?

Investor caution: During and after the Filecoin token sale, we have seen parties claiming to sell Filecoin SAFTs or tokens, as well as exchanges listing Filecoin and Filecoin derivatives. Remember that the Filecoin token will not be live until network launch, and any exchange that lists Filecoin or IPFS tokens right now is likely fraudulent. We will announce on the Filecoin blog when the Filecoin network and token go live. Until then, we strongly recommend staying away from any exchange or entity who claims to be buying, selling, or trading Filecoin or IPFS SAFTS, tokens or derivatives.

投资者请注意:在Filecoin销售之后,我们看到各方声称出售Filecoin SAFT或Token,以及列出Filecoin和Filecoin衍生品的交易所。请注意,Filecoin令牌在主网启动之前不会生效,任何列出Filecoin或IPFS令牌的交易都可能是欺诈性的。当Filecoin网络和令牌上线时,我们将在Filecoin博客上进行宣布。在此之前,我们强烈建议远离任何声称购买、出售、交易Filecoin、IPFS SAFTS,Token或衍生品的交易所和实体。

Community

社区

Are there community forums?

有没有社区论坛?

We plan to open up official community forums for miners, clients, and developers as we are closer to launching the network. In the meantime, please look for our updates on the Filecoin blog.

我们计划为矿工、客户和开发人员开辟官方社区论坛,在此期间,请在Filecoin博客上查找我们的更新。

Does Protocol Labs, Filecoin, or IPFS have any official community partners around the world, specifically in China?

协议实验室、Filecoin或IPFS在世界各地,特别是在中国有没有官方社区合作伙伴?

Protocol Labs is excited to see that IPFS is being embraced and promoted by many communities around the world. Some of those communities and their members have been in contact with us, and have offered to help us with things like translations. In some cases, we may accept open-source help, but that does not establish any sort of official or formal relationship. At this time, Protocol Labs has no official partnership with any community or individual, including Chinese communities or individuals. Any updates about official community partners will be announced on our website, or on the Filecoin blog.

协议实验室很高兴看到IPFS正在被世界各地的许多社区所接受和推广。其中一些社区及其成员与我们联系,并提出帮助我们进行翻译等工作。在某些情况下,我们可能会接受开源帮助,但这并不构成任何形式的官方或正式关系。目前,Protocol Labs与任何社区或个人(包括华人社区或个人)没有正式的合作关系。有关官方社区合作伙伴的任何更新,都将在我们的网站或Filecoin博客上公布。 

Where are the code repositories for Filecoin?

Filecoin的代码存储库在哪里?

The code repositories for Filecoin can be found on Github. We’ll be opening the Github repositories hosting the go-filecoin implementation and related tools in the coming months (see the development roadmap).

可以在Github上找到Filecoin的代码存储库。我们将在未来几个月内打开托管go-filecoin实施和相关工具的Github存储库(参见开发路线图)。

How can I contribute to the Filecoin codebase?

如何为Filecoin代码库做出贡献?

We have nearly passed the critical period when we needed to keep the codebase private, and are quickly reaching a point where the implementation would benefit more from being public. Therefore we plan to publish the codebase in the coming months. This will be an exciting time to get involved! At that point, everybody interested can come learn about Filecoin, help build parts of it, and start building on top of it.

我们几乎已经过了需要将代码库保持为私有的关键时期,并且正在迅速达到,实现将从公开中得到更多好处的阶段。因此,我们计划在未来几个月内发布代码库。这这将是一个激动人心的时刻!在那时,每个感兴趣的人都可以了解Filecoin,帮助构建部分文件。

We will be inviting a number of collaborators and contributors to our codebases before opening them up. You can register your interest in this form.

在开放代码库之前,我们将邀请一些合作伙伴和贡献者加入我们的代码库。可以在参与者表单中进行注册。

I have an idea! How do I discuss it with you?

有好的注意,该如何与你讨论?

For now, the best way to reach us is to share a submission using this form, or by emailing team@filecoin.io. In the future, a community forum will be available for this type of discussion.

目前,联系我们的最佳方式是发送电子邮件至team@filecoin.io。将来,将有一个社区论坛可用于此类讨论。

I want to start a Filecoin Meetup group! How do I do it?

想起动一个Filecoin Meetup小组,该怎么做?

We love to see volunteers developing communities around Filecoin. Please email team@filecoin.io with your information (name, background, experience, and location) and we’ll try to help however we can!

我们喜欢看到志愿者围绕Filecoin开发社区,请发送电子邮件至team@filecoin.io并提供你的信息(姓名、背景、经验和地点),我们会尽力帮助您!

How do we get someone from the Filecoin team to speak at our event?

如何让Filecoin团队的人员参加我们的活动?

Please reach out to us by using this form, or by emailing team@filecoin.io.

请发送电子邮件至team@filecoin.io与我们联系。

How do we get someone from the Filecoin team to speak to our research group?

如何让Filecoin团队的人员与我们的研究小组交流?

Please reach out to us by using this form, or by emailing research@protocol.ai.

请发送电子邮件至research@protocol.ai与我们联系。

I want to work on this full time! How can I join the Filecoin Team?

我想全职参与Filecoin工作!怎样才能加入Filecoin团队?

Ambitious projects like Filecoin succeed or fail depending on their teams. If you might be excited to help us build the Filecoin network, and share our vision, mission, and values, please apply for full time roles or check out our RFP program if you’d like to specifically help research our open problems.

像Filecoin这样雄心勃勃的项目取决于团队成败。如果你对帮助我们建立Filecoin网络感到兴奋,并愿意与我们分享,我们的愿景、使命和价值观,可以申请全职工作(https://jobs.lever.co/protocol)或查看我们的RFP计划(https://github.com/protocol/research-RFPs)。

Other

其他

I’d like to build an application on Filecoin. How do I stay informed?

我想在Filecoin上构建一个应用程序,如何保持知情?

Please reach out to us by using this form, or by emailing team@filecoin.io.

请发送电子邮件至team@filecoin.io与我们联系。

My question isn’t listed here. How can I get some answers?

这里没有我想知道的问题,怎样才能获得答案?

For now, the best way to reach us is to submit additional questions using this form, or by emailing team@filecoin.io. In the future, we will gather questions through a community forum.

目前,联系我们的最佳方式是发送电子邮件至team@filecoin.io提交其他问题。将来,我们将通过社区论坛收集问题。

术语表

Glossary

Filecoin网络(Filecoin Network)

Filecoin is a decentralized data storage network powered by a blockchain and a native token. Filecoin’s blockchain runs on a novel proof, called Proof-of-Spacetime, where blocks are created by miners that are storing data. The Filecoin network refers to the network of independent data storage and retrieval miners (or providers) and the clients that can hire them. Clients can hire miners via two decentralized, verifiable markets: the Storage Market and the Retrieval Market. The Filecoin network handles storage and retrieval requests on its verifiable markets without relying on centralized coordination from a single company. Protocol Labs initially proposed the Filecoin network in July 2014 (link), and the design was substantially improved in early 2017 (link).

Filecoin是一个分布式的数据存储网络,由区块链和本地令牌提供支持。Filecoin的区块链运行在一个名为Proof-of-Spacetime的新型证明上,其中块由存储数据的矿工创建。Filecoin网络是指独立数据存储和检索矿工(或提供商)的网络,以及可以雇用它们的客户。客户可以通过两个分布式的、可验证的市场雇佣矿工(存储市场和检索市场)。Filecoin网络在其可验证的市场上处理存储和检索请求,而不依赖于来自单个公司的集中协调。Protocol Labs最初在2014年7月提出了Filecoin网络,并在2017年初得到了大幅改善。

Filecoin 协议(Filecoin Protocol)

The Filecoin protocol refers to the communication standard that independent participants (miners and clients) adopt as part of our network. This standard is implemented in the Filecoin codebase and run by all participants on the Filecoin network. The protocol enables Filecoin’s data storage and retrieval service without relying on a single coordinator. The Filecoin protocol builds on the decentralized storage network, novel Proofs-of-Storage, verifiable markets and useful Proof-of-Work.

Filecoin协议是指独立参与者(矿工和客户)采用的通信标准,作为我们网络的一部分。该标准在Filecoin代码库中实现,并由Filecoin网络上的所有参与者运行。该协议支持Filecoin的数据存储和检索服务,而无需依赖单个协调器。Filecoin协议建立在分布式的存储网络、新颖的存储证明、可验证的市场和有用的工作证明之上。

Filecoin token

The filecoin token is the native crypto token of the Filecoin network, similar to bitcoin and ether. Filecoin is used to participate and transact in the Filecoin network (i.e., pay for data storage and retrieval).

filecoin token是Filecoin网络的本身加密令牌,类似于比特币和以太币。Filecoin用于参与Filecoin网络并进行交易(即支付数据存储和检索费用)。

Filecoin项目(Filecoin Project)

The Filecoin project includes the Filecoin protocol, Filecoin codebase, filecoin token, supporting communities (participants, developers, investors and token holders), project communications, and a team of individuals. The Filecoin project team is responsible for developing the Filecoin network’s codebase, launching the network, and cultivating the ecosystems that support the miner, user, developer, and investor communities of the network.

Filecoin项目包括Filecoin协议、Filecoin代码库、filecoin令牌、支持社区(参与者、开发者、投资者和代币持有者)、项目沟通和个人团队。Filecoin项目团队负责开发Filecoin网络的代码库、启动网络、培养支持网络的矿工、用户、开发人员和投资者社区的生态系统。

无需许可(Permissionless)

Access is provided to anybody; no approval or formal verification from a single entity or authoritative third party is required to participate.

任何人都可以访问;不需要来自单个实体或权威第三方的批准或正式验证。 

那些年矿机厂商夸下的海口,都被官方一一打脸(前篇)

那些年矿机厂商夸下的海口,都被官方一一打脸(前篇)

原创文章,作者:点对点资讯,如若转载,请注明出处:https://ipfsdrop.com/wiki/naxieniankuangjichangshangkuaxiadehaikoudoubeiguanfangyiyidalianqianpian/

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